1. Now Walk the Talk, Imran
  2. Violence against Minorities
  3. Unsheltered
  4. Lumbering Giant with a Midget’s Mentality
  5. How to Encourage Terrorism
  6. Faisalabad in 2028
  7. Mental Illness & the Progress of a Nation
  8. Child Sexual Abuse
  9. Living amongst the clouds : Aalia Bux
  10. Mental health – What soldiers can teach us
  11. Many Cookies still to Crumble
  12. Steering Through Turbulence
  13. ExxonMobil – Close to hitting huge oil reserves in Pakistan, bigger than Kuwait’s
  14. NAYA PAKISTAN?
  15. Making ADR work for Women
  16. Women’s Rights under Family Law
  17. Shutting the Door on Refugees
  18. Water Challenges and Opportunities
  19. In Conversation with Dr. Ghulam Rasul on Hydrology
  20. In Conversation with Shafqat kakakhel: Internal Water Management Practices
  21. Come on Skipper !
  22. GUMM
  23. Annus Horibilis
  24. The Inhumanity of Pakistan’s Coal Industry
  25. Iran Nuclear Deal The U.S Withdrawal
  26. Method in the Madness
  27. Legal System Reforms
  28. Power Over Impulse
  29. Refugees and Migrants are People too
  30. PTCL – A Nonstop Journey Towards Excellence
  31. Gulgee – The Last of The Greats
  32. Patrik Hoffmann – Sonraj
  33. Pakistan’s Primordial Hindu Heritage
  34. Pakistan’s Migrant Tragedy
  35. PTCL – Fastest Growing Brand in Pakistan
  36. Keep Pakistan’s Wagon Hitched To The China Star
  37. Anique’s Chocolate Cake
  38. Selfless & Fearless – Lahore Qalandars
  39. NEWS PICKS
  40. Intellectual Property and Tourism
  41. Fitness with the Mughal
  42. REBEL WITH A CAUSE
  43. The Big Fat Lie – Cholesterol (Part-1)
  44. Mummy’s Recipes Roast Chicken & Veg
  45. ENGAGING HEADS HEARTS AND HANDS
  46. The Big Fat Lie – Cholesterol (Part-2)
  47. Q & A with Star of Parchi
  48. Addressing Sexual Abuse
  49. Q & A with EMAN ZAEEM & MEHR SAAD
  50. Pakistan’s Lost Children
  51. ENGLAND AND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  52. STICK WITH FRIENDS AND DITCH THE ENEMIES
  53. The Phenomenon that Stephen Hawking was!
  54. In Conversation with ANUSHAY ZEESHAN
  55. Q & A with owner of District 6 – Anum Rafat
  56. Ali Rehman Khan – Naturally A Star
  57. MUNIBA`S Call for Tolerance & Justice
  58. Q&A Muniba Mazari
  59. Health Quotient (Dental health)
  60. Money for nothing, bits for free
  61. FinTech
  62. TRADING THREATS OF WAR
  63. Crisis of Civilization
  64. Child Sexual Abuse
  65. Education is the only Solution
  66. Fit for Purpose
  67. BLUE CHIP TALKS TO THE CREATOR OF TEETOO AND TANIA
  68. Mini meringue recipe
  69. NEW ANIMATED TV SERIES PAKISTANI
  70. Changing the Perception of Public Transport Motorway Express
  71. AUSTENISTAN DEBUTS WITH ELEGANCE AND ENTHUSIASM
  72. PAKISTAN’S WOMEN OF 2017
  73. THE BEAUTY IN BUSINESS
  74. PERCEPTIONS ARE ALSO REALITY
  75. Blue Chip Q/A with Atiqa Odho
  76. Five major political events of 2017
  77. WHAT DOES TRUMP’S TWEET MEAN FOR CPEC AND THE REGION
  78. THE GLOBAL ECONOMY IN 2017
  79. AFGHANISTAN GOING DOWNHILL
  80. 2017 FOR PSX – THE CLIMB AND THE DECLINE
  81. What we can learn from Ghalib
  82. QUINOA SALAD WITH THAI DRESSING
Sun, Nov 18, 2018
  1. Now Walk the Talk, Imran
  2. Violence against Minorities
  3. Unsheltered
  4. Lumbering Giant with a Midget’s Mentality
  5. How to Encourage Terrorism
  6. Faisalabad in 2028
  7. Mental Illness & the Progress of a Nation
  8. Child Sexual Abuse
  9. Living amongst the clouds : Aalia Bux
  10. Mental health – What soldiers can teach us
  11. Many Cookies still to Crumble
  12. Steering Through Turbulence
  13. ExxonMobil – Close to hitting huge oil reserves in Pakistan, bigger than Kuwait’s
  14. NAYA PAKISTAN?
  15. Making ADR work for Women
  16. Women’s Rights under Family Law
  17. Shutting the Door on Refugees
  18. Water Challenges and Opportunities
  19. In Conversation with Dr. Ghulam Rasul on Hydrology
  20. In Conversation with Shafqat kakakhel: Internal Water Management Practices
  21. Come on Skipper !
  22. GUMM
  23. Annus Horibilis
  24. The Inhumanity of Pakistan’s Coal Industry
  25. Iran Nuclear Deal The U.S Withdrawal
  26. Method in the Madness
  27. Legal System Reforms
  28. Power Over Impulse
  29. Refugees and Migrants are People too
  30. PTCL – A Nonstop Journey Towards Excellence
  31. Gulgee – The Last of The Greats
  32. Patrik Hoffmann – Sonraj
  33. Pakistan’s Primordial Hindu Heritage
  34. Pakistan’s Migrant Tragedy
  35. PTCL – Fastest Growing Brand in Pakistan
  36. Keep Pakistan’s Wagon Hitched To The China Star
  37. Anique’s Chocolate Cake
  38. Selfless & Fearless – Lahore Qalandars
  39. NEWS PICKS
  40. Intellectual Property and Tourism
  41. Fitness with the Mughal
  42. REBEL WITH A CAUSE
  43. The Big Fat Lie – Cholesterol (Part-1)
  44. Mummy’s Recipes Roast Chicken & Veg
  45. ENGAGING HEADS HEARTS AND HANDS
  46. The Big Fat Lie – Cholesterol (Part-2)
  47. Q & A with Star of Parchi
  48. Addressing Sexual Abuse
  49. Q & A with EMAN ZAEEM & MEHR SAAD
  50. Pakistan’s Lost Children
  51. ENGLAND AND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  52. STICK WITH FRIENDS AND DITCH THE ENEMIES
  53. The Phenomenon that Stephen Hawking was!
  54. In Conversation with ANUSHAY ZEESHAN
  55. Q & A with owner of District 6 – Anum Rafat
  56. Ali Rehman Khan – Naturally A Star
  57. MUNIBA`S Call for Tolerance & Justice
  58. Q&A Muniba Mazari
  59. Health Quotient (Dental health)
  60. Money for nothing, bits for free
  61. FinTech
  62. TRADING THREATS OF WAR
  63. Crisis of Civilization
  64. Child Sexual Abuse
  65. Education is the only Solution
  66. Fit for Purpose
  67. BLUE CHIP TALKS TO THE CREATOR OF TEETOO AND TANIA
  68. Mini meringue recipe
  69. NEW ANIMATED TV SERIES PAKISTANI
  70. Changing the Perception of Public Transport Motorway Express
  71. AUSTENISTAN DEBUTS WITH ELEGANCE AND ENTHUSIASM
  72. PAKISTAN’S WOMEN OF 2017
  73. THE BEAUTY IN BUSINESS
  74. PERCEPTIONS ARE ALSO REALITY
  75. Blue Chip Q/A with Atiqa Odho
  76. Five major political events of 2017
  77. WHAT DOES TRUMP’S TWEET MEAN FOR CPEC AND THE REGION
  78. THE GLOBAL ECONOMY IN 2017
  79. AFGHANISTAN GOING DOWNHILL
  80. 2017 FOR PSX – THE CLIMB AND THE DECLINE
  81. What we can learn from Ghalib
  82. QUINOA SALAD WITH THAI DRESSING

Q: There are conflicting views on water availability in Pakistan. On the one hand we face water scarcity but on the other hand the absolute quantity of available surface waters remains the same. Can you explain the reason for this incongruity?

Water scarcity can be judged by two parameters:  total amount of water available from different sources and number of water users. In Pakistan’s case, water becomes available through precipitation, only whether it is solid or liquid. Precipitation regime remained more or less unchanged over the span of a century, but the number of users (population) has increased by many folds. As the divisor is getting larger and larger, the per capita share is decreasing.

 

Q: From a scientific perspective, do we have reliable data on hydrology (atmospheric water vapour content, precipitation  patterns, snow volume, glacial mass/balance, cryosphere and permafrost behavior, surface and ground water availability, aquifer storage and  recharge capacity) to make informed policy decisions on how to cope with the changing environment?

So many indicators are placed together, that being a climatologist, I will be choosy to pick some of them. In most of the cases, long-term data is not available especially in cryosphere region. As temperature increases, the water vapour contents will ultimately increase because of enhanced evaporation. Both solid and liquid precipitation patterns have not permanently changed, however, they have been subjected to extreme variability over time and space. Increasing precipitation  intensity is resulting into heavy downpour, flash flooding and urban flooding. Glacial mass balance studies conducted by PMD in some glaciated basins indicate alarming depletion rate. Surface and ground water resources are mismanaged.

 

Q: Observational records and climate projections provide us with ample evidence that freshwater resources are vulnerable to climate change. How will this hydrological imbalance between growing needs and shrinking supply sources impact societies and ecosystems?

Nature has blessed Pakistan with rich fresh water stocks in the form of the summer and winter precipitation. Most of our summer stock goes into waste; can’t we save it intelligently?  Demand will further grow to feed the increasing population under warmer climate, yet we have to cater to that demand scientifically. Also, we have to improve our water stocks from 30 days to at least one year in the next two decades, because future projections reflect increased frequency of floods and drought.

 

Q: What are the main causes for changes in the large-scale hydrological cycle?

Hydrological cycle is composed of three processes vis-à-vis evaporation, condensation and precipitation. Heat energy operates this cycle. Due to increased concentration of Green House Gases (GHGs) in lower strata of atmosphere, more heat becomes available for intense evaporation of water reaching higher heights for

condensation and then resulting into precipitation in the shape of heavy downpour. At the end of 2015, the concentration of carbon dioxide was 394 parts per million by volume, which has now crossed the critical threshold of 400 parts per million. The GHGs have great warming potential and their addition to atmosphere from industry, agriculture, transportation etc, has been increasing the air temperature.

 

Q: By the middle of the 21st century, the average annual river-runoff and water availability is projected to increase at high latitudes and decrease at mid latitudes. How will these hydrological changes affect Pakistan?

These projections of river runoff are directly linked with global warming, under which polar ice will melt faster and similar effects will be visible in HKH cryosphere much earlier. For rivers emerging from Asian High Mountains, climate projections indicate that flows will first increase, and then decrease. Ultimately, Pakistan may suffer adversely from this variable pattern of inflows from the cryosphere, which contributes 60% to 70% to the country’s river flows. Pakistan is already facing a too much or too little water scenario, and this may be further enhanced.

 

Q: What will be the impact of shifts in the amplitude and timing of run-off in glaciers and snowmelt- fed rivers on mountain communities and downstream population centers? What actions are needed to build resilience and reduce vulnerability?

The increased runoff from glaciated zones in combination with monsoon may exaggerate the riverine flooding downstream, while reduced flows will result in increased frequency and intensity of drought. Due to increasing temperatures, the snow/glacier melting will be accelerated, which may enhance glacial lake formation process. Glacial Lakes Outburst Floods, debris flow, landslides and avalanches are expected to be more common disasters for the mountainous communities. A detailed survey of the region by a multidisciplinary team should be conducted to identify the disaster risks, and their solutions should be adopted by involving the vulnerable communities. Training of communities on climate resilient adaptation would be highly result oriented.

 

Q: What are some of the adaptation actions that are critical to ensure conservation of water resources and efficient use of water?

Pakistan is located in an arid region where precipitation is far less than evaporation. Therefore, sufficient water stocks are necessary to supplement the deficit to meet the requirements of crops, animals, domestic and industrial users. That could be done through construction of small, medium and large reservoirs, which will recharge the ground water resources as well. Water metering and billing should be implanted as soon as possible and legislation on ground water extraction is also the need of the hour. Climate smart agriculture must be encouraged and promoted to save water from this major consumer sector. We must emphasize water management issues to reduce the floods and drought risk.

By Aisha Khan

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Now Walk the Talk, Imran
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LATEST POSTS

Now Walk the Talk, Imran
Violence against Minorities
Unsheltered

Unsheltered

November 5, 2018
Lumbering Giant with a Midget’s Mentality